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Unit 2 Soil Erosion

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

When the first men and women arrived in the area now known as the United States, they found a rich land.
 

 2. 

Removal of the soil’s plant covering by fire has the same effect no matter what causes the fire.
 

 3. 

Erosion is always a normal part of the soil formation process.
 

 4. 

Accelerated erosion is usually much slower than the process of soil formation.
 

 5. 

Topsoil that took many thousands of years to form can erode or blow away in just a few years.
 

 6. 

Natural or geological erosion takes place all the time.
 

 7. 

Class I land is level, fertile, and relatively safe from erosion.
 

 8. 

Class VIII land is very rough, rocky, covered with deep sand, or underwater.
 

 9. 

Class I land can be used safely for any kind of farm production.
 

 10. 

If Class III land does not slope, it may have serious drainage problems or suffer from drought.
 

 11. 

Class IV land should be covered by vegetation almost continuously.
 

 12. 

Early tilling used a handheld stick to gouge the Earth so a seed could be planted.
 

 13. 

Conservation tillage replaces the older methods of clean tillage that left bare soil exposed during the nongrowing season.
 

 14. 

Millions of acres of land annually are disturbed by strip mining for coal and other resources.
 

 15. 

As new highways are constructed and old ones are widened, moved, or repaired, millions of miles of road banks are subject to water-caused erosion.
 

 16. 

Because of the capital-intensive nature of most construction, more expensive erosion control practices are often economically essential.
 

 17. 

In urban and commercial development, sediment deposits must be removed with costly machinery and labor.
 

 18. 

The muddy water of the sediment basin is held long enough for the sediment to settle out in the form of mud.
 

 19. 

The seedbed should be prepared by thorough tilling, smoothing, and removal of rocks and other debris.
 

 20. 

During the last quarter of the last century, a large increase occurred in the strip mining of coal.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Another name for natural soil erosion is ____ erosion.
A.
accelerated
B.
geological
 

 2. 

Water that first hits soil as falling raindrops is ____ erosion.
A.
splash
B.
runoff
 

 3. 

The faster the water flows, the more ____ it becomes.
A.
destructive
B.
helpful
 

 4. 

Runoff erosion damage is threefold. Which of the following is NOT correct?
A.
Soil temperature increases.
B.
An existing soul structure becomes damaged.
C.
Gullies may reshape the soil surface.
D.
Soil carried away will eventually become a silt deposit.
 

 5. 

Sheet erosion occurs so ____ that a farmer cannot tell it happened.
A.
slowly
B.
quickly
 

 6. 

Whenever rills appear, erosion has already taken place and the soil has been ____.
A.
damaged
B.
enhanced
 

 7. 

Class ____ land has a gentle slope and is subject to some erosion.
A.
II
C.
IV
B.
III
D.
VII
 

 8. 

Class ____ land is the very best for agricultural production.
A.
I
C.
VI
B.
V
D.
VII
 

 9. 

Which of the following is not an erosion-control technique for Class III land?
A.
terracing
D.
cover cropping
B.
fertilization
E.
minimum tillage
C.
crop rotations
 

 10. 

Which of the following is not a limiting factor of Class VI land that makes it unsuitable for cultivation?
A.
shallow topsoil
C.
severe erosion
B.
extreme rockiness
D.
drought
 

 11. 

Which of the following is not an effect of water-caused soil erosion?
A.
freezing and thawing
B.
the cutting of flowing water (runoff)
C.
the impact of falling raindrops (splash)
D.
none of the above
 

 12. 

Which of the following is not a form of vegetative erosion control?
A.
strip cropping
D.
crop rotation
B.
cover crops
E.
grafting
C.
green manure crops
 

 13. 

With shelterbelts, some protection is offered downwind at least ____ times the height of the shelterbelt.
A.
5
C.
6
B.
3
D.
20
 

 14. 

Each day, ____ acres of U.S. farmland are converted to nonfarm use.
A.
8,000
B.
2,000
 

 15. 

Controlling nonfarm erosion involves all but which of the following?
A.
topsoil control
C.
sedimentation control
B.
runoff control
D.
erosion control
 

 16. 

Nonfarm erosion control techniques involve all but which of the following?
A.
mulch
C.
vegetative
B.
mechanical
 

 17. 

Which of the following is not a reason why concrete is used for constructing waterways?
A.
Contractors feel comfortable with this type of work.
B.
The higher investment per square foot in business and industry construction means the costs of concrete waterways are justifiable.
C.
The runoff must be conducted away more quickly.
D.
The runoff rate on a parking lot is nearly 100 percent.
 

 18. 

Which of the following do not protect long or less steep banks?
A.
jute matting
B.
wooden strips placed across the slope
C.
chemical binding materials
D.
grass
E.
ground cover
 

 19. 

Which of the following is not a vegetative erosion control?
A.
lawn
D.
ground covers
B.
sodding
E.
rock
C.
mulching
 

 20. 

Which of the following does not explain a difference between strip mines?
A.
topography
C.
habitats
B.
vegetation
D.
riparian areas
 

Matching
 
 
Match the question with the correct response
A.
runoff
F.
wind erosion
B.
rill erosion
G.
silt particles
C.
lower productivity
H.
discolored areas
D.
plowed
I.
larger
E.
sheet erosion
J.
soil erosion
 

 1. 

A normal process
 

 2. 

Destructive action of water on soil
 

 3. 

A serious problem
 

 4. 

May be carried away in a cloud of dust
 

 5. 

Will continue to wash out
 

 6. 

Caused by splash erosion coupled with a slow runoff of soil-laden water
 

 7. 

Indicate that sheet erosion is well advanced
 

 8. 

The effect of sheet erosion on soil
 

 9. 

Type of particles of sand and certain clay granules that may not be carried away, so the soil surface becomes very sandy or covered by a layer of clay
 

 10. 

Field is more susceptible than bare soil to drying and blowing
 
 
Match the question with the correct response
A.
construction
F.
water chute
B.
waterways
G.
runoff
C.
sod
H.
winter rye
D.
sediment basin
I.
lawn
E.
diversion ditch
J.
terraces
 

 11. 

Involves more extreme changes on the soil surface than farming does
 

 12. 

Placed across the slope collects runoff and conducts it to a site for safe disposal
 

 13. 

Collect excess soil water in the form of runoff and conduct it elsewhere for disposal
 

 14. 

A concrete-lined waterway
 

 15. 

Designed for filling by sediment or mud
 

 16. 

Breaks long paths into shorter slopes
 

 17. 

May start as a slow trickle at the top of a long, steep roadbank and become a racing stream before it reaches the bottom
 

 18. 

The most common vegetative control technique for erosion control on nonfarm sites
 

 19. 

A living layer of mature grass and topsoil that is usually found in squares or long rolled strips
 

 20. 

A temporary cover crop
 



 
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